Virginia 2016 & 2017 Census Estimates

The links and images on this post pertain to the state of Virginia, U.S. Click on Virginia American Community Survey 2016 estimate for the 126 page pdf document for Virginia and all Virginia counties and major cities. Counties are listed in alphabetical order.

Image of Virginia demographics in the 2017 one-year estimates of population, median household income, persons in poverty, high school graduates, persons without insurance, median housing values, total housing units, number of companies, male median income, female median income, and veterans.

Department of Labor: Watch and Learn Videos

NEW: The Department of Labor’s plain-language video series offers Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) guidance in language you don’t need a law degree to understand. While the videos target employers, they can inform adult students about labor standards in the workplace.

To view the FLSA videos click on FLSA Videos. This is the URL to the link: https://www.dol.gov/whd/flsa/videos.htm

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Degree and Nondegree Credentials Held by Labor Force Participants

Examining the percentage of adults who have a postsecondary degree misses other types of postsecondary credentials that could be useful in the labor market, such as postsecondary certificates, occupational licenses and occupational certifications.

The National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) released a new Data Point report today (March 27) entitled Degree and Nondegree Credentials Held by Labor Force Participants. This report examines the rates at which working adults have attained either a postsecondary degree or a postsecondary nondegree credential, including postsecondary certificates, occupational licenses, and occupational certifications. The report uses data from the Adult Training and Education survey, conducted as part of the 2016 National Household Education Survey (NHES) program.

Among the findings:

  • Although only 45 percent of working adults have a postsecondary degree, when nondegree credentials are factored in, 58 percent of working adults have some type of postsecondary work credential.
  • Among working adults who do not have a postsecondary degree, the most common nondegree credential is an occupational license.

Figure 1: Percentage of adults in the labor force who have different degree and nondegree credentials: 2016. LEFT pie graph: 55% No postsecondary degree. 45% Any postsecondary degree. RIGHT pie graph: 13% No postsecondary degree and a nondegree credential. 18% Postsecondary degree and nondegree credential. 27% postsecondary degree and no nondegree credential. 42% No postsecondary degree and no nondegree credential.

To view the full report, please visit this link to the Data Point handout entitled Degree and Nondegree Credentials Held by Labor Force Participants or cut and paste this URL into an address bar:  http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2018057.

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Strategic Leverage: Use of State and Local Laws to Enforce Labor Standards in Immigrant-Dense Occupations

Image of the report from the Migration Policy Institute entitled "Strategic Leverage: Use of State and Local Laws to Enforace Labor Standards in Immigrant-dense Occupations"This March, 2018 report by Andrew Elmore and Muzaffar Chishti from the Migration Policy Institute discusses the widespread practice of employer workplace violations in immigrant-dense industries.

“Immigrants, who account for 17 percent of the U.S. labor force, are twice as likely as native-born workers to be employed in an industry where violations of core labor standards are widespread. These wage-and-hour and safety-and-health law violations can often be traced back to the changing nature of the relationship between low-wage workers and the companies that employ them. For example, the practice of misclassifying workers as “independent contractors” rather than employees—and thus removing them from the protection of many workplace laws and enabling companies to sidestep payroll taxes, unemployment insurance contributions, and workers’ compensation requirements—is common in low-wage industries from construction to transportation.”

Click on this link to access the Migration Policy Institute’s report: Strategic Leverage

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Nonemployer Statistics–An Indicator of Virginia’s “Gig Economy”

Ann Lang, Senior Economist with the Virginia Employment Commission, wrote an article for “Economic Information & Analytics,” which attempted to provide an indication of Virginia’s “gig economy”—a much discussed but hard to define sector of the economy. This analysis is not a comprehensive look at the “gig economy” and is based solely on nonemployer statistics from the Census. Nonemployer statistics are used to gain insight into this sector of the economy, as many gig workers fit the definition of nonemployers. Click on this link to Gig Economy-NonEmployer- Article 2014-15 to read the full text.

Read an excerpt of the article’s summary below:

“Nonemployer businesses run the gamut from old-fashioned family-run corner stores to home-based bloggers,” said William Bostic Jr., the Census Bureau’s associate of for economic programs. “In some cases, the business may be the owner’s primary source of income, such as with real estate agents and physicians, but in other instances, they may operate the business as a side job, such as with babysitting and tutoring.”4

Over the 2010-2015 period, nonemployer establishments in Virginia increased by 66,149 or 13.0 percent, surpassing the national growth of 10.0 percent. While Virginia’s nonemployer firms are growing, they remain smaller in number and economic impact than traditional payroll employment, which increased by almost 200,000, or 5.6 percent. The largest gains in nonemployer establishments over the five year period occurred in transportation and warehousing; other services; professional, scientific, and technical services; and real estate and rental and leasing—all sectors that encompass service activities.

Image of a bar graph about nonemployer establishments by industry in Virginia, 2015.

Click on this link to read the full PDF article: Gig Economy-NonEmployer- Article 2014-15

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Adding Up The Low Costs of Literacy Among Adults

Matthew Burke graduated from high school even though he was reading at about the third-grade level. He got a job as a welder but found his lack of reading skills held him back. Kavitha Cardoza/WAMU

Matthew Burke graduated from high school even though he was reading at about the third-grade level. He got a job as a welder but found his lack of reading skills held him back. Kavitha Cardoza/WAMU

This NPR article from 2013 makes a compelling case statement for funding adult education and literacy programs. The topic is still relevant in 2018. The following is an excerpt from the article:

A ‘Double Expense’

People who struggle to read, write and speak English are sentenced to a lifetime of economic challenges, says Stephen Fuller, an economist with George Mason University in Virginia. He says it’s important to have an educated workforce.

“If we fail, it’s a double expense, ’cause the economy isn’t healthy, and we also have increased social services,” he says.

Fuller says that has enormous costs for society. People with low literacy are more likely to need unemployment checks, food stamps and subsidized housing. And they are more likely to end up behind bars.

To read more, click on this link to Adding Up the Costs. The article, the 4th in a series, leads to three other articles related to adult literacy and the challenges adults face in pursuing their educational and workplace dreams.

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ALICE: Looking up financial insecurity region by region in Virginia & 14 other states

United Way logoWorking Hard, But Struggling to Survive

ALICE is a United Way acronym that stands for Asset Limited, Income Constrained, Employed. This is a project of United Ways in Connecticut, Florida, Hawai‘i, Idaho, Indiana, Iowa, Louisiana, Maryland, Michigan, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Texas, Virginia, Washington, and Wisconsin.

ALICE families earn above the federal poverty level, but do not earn enough to afford a bare-bones household budget of housing, child care, food, transportation, and health care. The United Way ALICE Reports use new measures to provide a more accurate picture of financial insecurity at the state, county, and municipal level. This link leads to a page on the Rutgers School of Public Affairs and Administration’s site that houses the regional Virginia statistics.

Logo of the Rutgers School of Public Affairs and Administration, Newark

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